Labo A - Still image, Moving Image and the Stilness and Movement of Images.


The uniform playback of an image creates a moving image, but a still image by itself cannot reproduce motion. In addition, a moving image can record a still image, but not vice versa. A still image recorded by a moving image is, in fact, a still image that is relatively stable within the frame of the moving image, because there is no absolute stillness in the microscope; the still image itself is moving in space, and it can, of course, be moved at the macroscopic level. Computer-generated images, however, have the potential to record still virtual objects, so the virtual and non-virtual images involved in Image Field in fact embody the relative concepts of motion and stillness.

When a digital image is transferred from one screen to another, is it in movement? The transmission of an image is a hidden abstraction of spatial movement from one computer to another, in fact the transmission of data signals between computers, but based on a material mediation that moves in space, it does move, although it is translated. Thus the collection of screens across time and space mentioned below can provide a platform for observing image motion.

Labo B - Analog, Digital and Virtual Images


Analog images cannot be directly transformed into digital images; they always require a process of translation to become digital images, from optical information into binary symbols and then into digital images made of pixels. During this multiple translation process,  loss of information is unavoidable, and has existed for a long time in the creation of analog images. Even assuming that there is no loss, they can never be identical, because they are completely different in nature. Considering the same type of replication, where an analog image loses information in the process of replicating itself over and over again, whereas a digital image can be replicated with exactly the same information, it may seem that the digital image has a higher intensity. Considering the medium on which the image is based, the analog medium is in fact more temporally intense than the digital one. Due to the high degree of integration and material instability, the lifespan of electronic products is usually less than that of simple analog devices. However, further analysis is needed between analog images and analog media, since digital images are stored in binary codes that can also be translated to analog storage materials, and in fact many large companies require large-capacity analog tapes for data backup. In this way, the strength of the digital image can compete with that of the analog image.

The image space is hybrid now that all three types of images exist together, and the Image Field involves a mixed zone of all three images. The analog image exists in a wide range of realities, the digital image is distributed on the screen, and the virtual image exists on the immersive screen. The study of the three types of images is also a study of the media on which they are based.

Labo C - Distribution of Screens


Both the field of view and the frame have limitations, but the field of view is the domain of human vision and can change as people move, while the frame is the material domain of the image, which is in a relatively stable state ( but flexible screens break the stability of the frame). Since it reflects the most intuitive aspects of viewing behavior, observation and experimentation on the range of the field of view and the screen frame are the first issues to be addressed by Labo Series.

Single Screen - Field of View and Frame of Image:

The relationship between the field of view and the frame is always in relative flux. Within the field of view, a smaller image is always clearly distinguishable, its boundary with reality is defined by the frame, and its interior is stable. Larger images, on the other hand, are beyond the field of view, and when the eye cannot reach the borders, the interior and exterior of the image are not perceptible to the eye, blurring our judgment of reality. If the image is sufficiently realistic, our brains will have difficulty distinguishing between the image and reality. Because the relationship between field of view and frame is also related to the movement of the human position, as we move backwards, the frame of an image that was beyond the field of view will gradually be revealed, indicating that the viewing relationship is movable. A panoramic image in physical space allows the frame to extend beyond the field of view, and the viewer can still see the spatial variation of the panorama as they move to distinguish the unrealistic image. However, with the advent of VR, the field of view can no longer be adjusted to motion, the field of view is completely enclosed, the viewer is confronted with a panoramic image, and the viewer is unable to judge spatial changes by their own movement, because the viewer is immersed in it, the viewer's movement is no longer to adjust the relationship between the field of view and the frame, but becomes a process of framing, as we perceptively do in physical space.

Multiple Screens - Image Field Between Screens:

i. Screen Set:

The opposite of a single screen is a set of multiple screens that together form a wider field of view, essentially a stitching together that comes close to eliminating borders, but the screens remain separate. Such a tradition comes from altarpieces, some of which have the property of being able to be opened, and they consist of two or more images stitched together so that in the open state they together form a larger picture. Similarly, a folding screen (byobu) with a pattern or painting that is fully open and flattened can reproduce the complete picture. It is not uncommon in modernist painting for brushstrokes to be applied across multiple frames, which, because the frame is removed, still appear as a single entity from a distance. Excluding the need for functionality, the combination of multiple images pursues the broadening of the picture, but the parts that make up the whole remain independent, and the boundaries do not disappear, but tend to overlap infinitely. Therefore, a collection of images constitutes a big picture that is different from a single big picture in that it still has the possibility of dissolution, a temporary and active state. At the same time, there is another kind of combination, in which the individual images are independent of each other and do not constitute a whole image; on the contrary, they are put together so that the different images form a discrete whole, a semiotic whole.Sometimes a set of images does not fit together completely, but rather there are gaps, and the key to defining whether they fit together is whether they have visual and spatial continuity. Two images that cannot be seen at the same time should not be a set of images.

ii. Screens Across Time and Space: 

In the context of Image Field's focus, screens across time and space refer to geographically distributed screens that are connected together to form responsive networks. Such a collection of screens is connected through a network and is capable of displaying images in different spaces because of the delayed nature of network transmission, and thus this network is also intertemporal. It extends the breadth of the image display field and creates a virtual planar dimension within its distribution, an area in which images can flow.

An example that illustrates a network of screens across time and space is digital signage, which according to the Wikipedia definition is a subset of electronic signage. Digital displays use technologies such as LCDs, LEDs, projectors, and electronic paper to display digital images, video, web pages, weather data, restaurant menus, or text. They can be found in public places, transportation systems, museums, stadiums, retail stores, hotels, restaurants and corporate buildings to provide wayfinding, exhibits, marketing and outdoor advertising. They are used as electronic display networks that can be centrally managed and individually addressed to display text, animated or video messages to display advertising, information, entertainment and merchandise to target audiences. Obviously, digital signage is thus undoubtedly a new version of the medium of the landscape that Guy criticized, pervading our lives around us and providing information about consumption all the time. In many cyberpunk fantasies, digital signage is the tentacle of a giant urban machine that reaches into the corners of the underbelly, and even in poor, underprivileged neighborhoods, it still shines brightly at all times, pledging the ideology of capital to the dark corners. Digital signage is notable for being widely distributed and forming a network, they follow the footsteps of commercial companies around the world and are always responsive. New goods demand new messages, and they display the corresponding images uniformly. In newer technologies, digital signage is managed by servers in the cloud and sends the displayed information as long as they are networked. They are unified and can respond collectively without human involvement, and there is no technology that can mobilize so many screens like this, which is a clear example of screens that span time and space. Taking this technology out of the realm of consumption and creating a network of freely displayed screens managed by geographically diverse volunteers might open up a new smooth space, a new network of rhizome.

Labo was mentioned above as a conceptual "laboratory" because Labo does not need to be confined to a specific form, it can be a laboratory in a physical space or a laboratory in a virtual space, according to the way I practice art. In the design of the experiments and in fact, I will refer to some principles and methods that need to be considered for scientific experiments. Labo's experimental objects are Image and Field, Labo's experimental elements exist in various combinations of Image and Field, its variables need to be in "static-dynamic", " digital and non-digital". Labo's experimental effects are defined in relationships such as "single screen - set of screens - set of screens across time and space","centralized - discrete", etc. The experimental effects of Labo need to consider the combination of different elements and the degree to which they are combined. The design of the experiment will not be presented here for the time being, as it involves many non-artistic aspects. Therefore, technologists in the relevant fields will be invited to collaborate in the implementation process.

Simulated visualization of LABO

Research Case of Labo C - 01

Transmission of images across space through the network

Image transmission path: computer - server - urban indoor space - outdoor natural space

Image transmission path: computer - server - urban indoor space - outdoor natural space

Cloud based image management

How different experimental subjects and different devices can receive and present images:

1. Router
2. Player
3. Screen wall
4. Information query machine
5. Billboard
6. Small mobile devices
7. Car with screen

Possibility and equipment requirements for playing images in outdoor natural spaces

Possibility and equipment requirements for playing images in outdoor natural spaces

Key issues:
Dustproof and waterproof
electricity supply
network transmission